Information about specific countries
Material worth reading no matter which country you are interested in
- Global Review: Citizenship and multiple citizenship
laws of each country in the world
- Dual Nationality and United States
Law FAQ -- This is
an excellent overview of dual citizenship issues. Though the focus is on US
law, many of the ideas and issues are just as relevant to people with other
- CIC Canada
-- Very clear explanation of some of the important things to consider with
respect to dual citizenship. Even though the brochure is written for Canadians
with dual citizenship, most of it will be of interest to any dual citizen.
- The full text of selected citizenship laws are available via the United
Nations High Commissioner for Refugees Country
of Origin and Legal Information page. There are also summaries of many
countries citizenship laws (most seem to be done by the Canadian government)
- The Country Name List provides the alternative
& local spellings of most country names, as well as top level internet
domains. There also translations for the phrase "Multiple Citizenship"
in several different languages.
Bosnia and Herzegovina
- A well written and well presented brochure about dual citizenship is at
- A page of Canadian
citizenship information from CIC
- Any child born in Canada and any child born to a Canadian-born parent is
Canadian. If your parent is Canadian but was not born in Canada, then you
should refer to the retention
(see the copy at www.archive.org)
touches on citizenship issues related to the break up of Czechoslovakia. Also
discusses the importance of the European Convention on Citizenship
for ex-citizens of Czechoslovakia or the Czech Republic who wish to regain
- Text of Croatian citizenship law (see the copy at www.archive.org)
from one of the embassies
- Other material suggests that dual citizenship is tolerated for Croatians
who obtain another citizenship through naturalization, though Croatia does
not "recognize" dual citizenship. Croatian citizenship remains unless
the person explicitly renounces it
- A new Finish Nationality Act comes into force in 2003. It allows multiple
citizenship. Finnish citizens will no longer lose their Finnish citizenship
when they assume another citizenship. Similarly, foreign citizens who are
granted Finnish citizenship will not need to give up their present citizenship.
- Every citizen of an EU member state is also a citizen of the EU. It is not clear what this citizenship means in practice. A wonderful side effect is that EU citizens can benefit from freedom of movement to other EU member states
- German law is slowly moving towards more acceptance of multiple citizenship,
especially in cases Germans who want to acquire another citizenship or are
born German with multiple citizenship. There is however little opportunity
for people who acquire German citizenship, recently made a lot easier, to
retain their previous citizenship(s).
- The German embassy in Washington has some pages on citizenship,
but they are written only in German and so not of much help if you believe
you may be a citizen but do not speak the language. It may be best to telephone
the Consular Services department of your local German
embassy if you want to speak with somebody who speaks English (or the
local language of your country) and can explain their rules for you
- The German embassy in Canada has some material
(if not available, check www.archive.org)
in English, but not as many detailed examples
- Children get German citizenship at birth when at least one of the parents
is a German. Those children born in a country like the US automatically acquire
US citizenship from being born there, German citizenship from having a German
parent and possibly other citizenships from the other parent. According to
(in German) on the embassy web site, the child does NOT later have to have
to make a choice about their German citizenship. Eine spätere
Entscheidung zwischen den beiden Staatsangehörigkeiten ist nicht erforderlich,
ihr Kind ist also dauerhaft Doppelstaater. (Rough translation: A
decision between the two citizenships is not required, so your child will
permanently have dual citizenship)
- A Canadian analysis
of the new German citizenship laws, as part of a UNHCR database of citizenship
- The US embassy in Germany has a very nice summary of both German
and US citizenship laws
of the Law on Nationality, on the Auswärtiges Amt (Foreign Office)
web site, is a good summary in English of some of the 2000 law changes
- A Ministry of the Interior page on the new Nationality Act, including text of the laws in English
- The government is talking to certain countries on the issue of extending
dual citizenship to non-resident Indians and People of Indian Origin.
As of March 2003, there does not seem to be a whole lot more detail on what
this might mean.
- A British Home Office review of Indian citizenship laws
- Irish citizenship is automatic for people born in Ireland or children of
people born in Ireland. Grandchildren of people born in Ireland are not automatically
citizens at birth, but can apply for it. Washington embassy web site has a
nice summary: Irish Citizenship
- A web site of Australian origin called the "Citizenship
Clinic" (if not available, check www.archive.org)
appears to have a nice collection of information about British, Australian
and Irish citizenship
- "Most people born in Northern Ireland prior to 1922 are Irish by birth.
If this applies to your parent or grandparent, then you are also considered
to be an Irish citizen." (link).
Other information seems to suggest that even people born more recently in
Northern Ireland may be Irish.
- A partial description of Italian
citizenship law (in Italian and English) is on the embassy web site, mostly
related to acquiring other citizenships as an Italian
- Children born in Italy are Italian
- There is quite a bit of information about Italian citizenship by decent
on the web page of myitaliancitizenship.com
- A description of Mexican
citizenship law (in Spanish) is on the embassy web site. It mentions that
you do not loose your Mexican citizenship if you acquire another citizenship,
and that the children of people who are naturalized Mexican citizens or were
born in Mexico are also Mexican citizens, even if they are born abroad
- In the past, the Dutch government has been restrictive about dual citizenship,
allowing it only for some people that were born with multiple nationalities
- In 2001, Dutch law was changed to greatly expand the scope for multiple
citizenship. Good general information (in English and Dutch) on the new
Dutch nationality law, from the Dutch embassy web site
- Dutch citizens living abroad with dual nationality: He/she may retain
Dutch nationality by obtaining a Dutch passport or proof of Dutch nationality
from the Dutch Embassy or consulate at least once within each ten-year period
after turning 18 and "A new ten-year period starts on the day you
are issued with a passport or proof of Dutch nationality" (reference).
Implication: Never to allow your passport to expire if you want to retain
your Dutch citizenship - renew early!
- Some of the new provisions allow retroactive restoration of citizenship
to people who lost it when they became adults. The web material includes an
important time critical note: "Persons last issued with a Dutch passport
or proof of Dutch nationality between 1 January 1990 and 31 December 1993
must apply for a new passport or proof of Dutch nationality before 1 January
2004." References: Dutch
Nationality Restored or a more recent PDF
document, both from the Dutch government.
- Some people who acquire Dutch nationality through naturalization can retain
their old citizenship (reference)
- Dutch citizens who acquire another citizenship may loose their Dutch (reference)
except in some interesting situations. There is a reference to an agreement
for the prevention of dual nationality with Austria, Belgium, Denmark,
Luxembourg and Norway
- For more information: Dutch
Diplomatic Missions and Web Sites. Before applying for another nationality,
ask a Dutch embassy or consulate whether you will lose your Dutch nationality.
- Summary of Swiss
citizenship law (if not available, check www.archive.org).
The Swiss material is very nicely presented and is clearly written. They have
put together some of the best material available on the web!
- There is also a two page citizenship fact sheet entitled How
do your children become or remain Swiss citizens?. Like the other
material, the fact sheet is very well written
- Editorial note: the Swiss material is of very high quality and should be
considered as a model for any other country that wants to present information
about their own citizenship laws.
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